<P>Fact 1: Europe is using up its essential water resources Europe is not an arid continent, but water supplies are now a concern for almost half of the EU population. The graph below shows the situation in di? erent European countries. The water exploitation index (WEI) indicates the amount of water abstracted each year as a proportion of total long-term freshwater resources. It is an indicator of the pressure or stress on freshwater resources. A WEI above 20 implies that a water resource is under stress, and values above 40 indicate severe water stress and clearly unsustainable use of the water resource. Cyprus, Bulgaria, Belgium, Spain, Italy and Malta are currently using up 20 or more of their long-term supplies every year. Cyprus, which has been su? ering severe drought, consumed much more than 40 of its renewable supplies. Europes geography and climate mean that water distribution is uneven in the EU, a situation made worse by human activity. In southern Europe, for instance, tourist development has increased demand for water, resulting in deserti? cation and salt-water intrusion to aquifers located in some coastal freshwater zones. Water scarcity is most acute in the south, but by no means limited to these areas: most Member States have su? ered episodes of drought since 1976, and many now report frequent water scarcity problems and over-exploited aquifers. Fact 2: The problem is growing Water scarcity is an increasingly frequent and worrying phenomenon that a? ects at least 11 of the European population and 17 of EU territory. Since 1980, the number of droughts in Europe has increased, and they have become more severe, costing an estimated €100 billion over the past 30 years. One of the worst droughts occurred in 2003, when one-third of EU territory and over 100 million people were a? ected. Between 1976 and 2006, the number of people and areas hit by drought rose by almost 20, and the yearly average cost has quadrupled. Demand for water continues to rise across Europe, putting a strain on our resources. It is estimated that some 20-40 of Europes available water is being wasted (leakages in the supply system, no water saving technologies installed, too much unnecessary irrigation, dripping taps etc.). In a ‘business as usual scenario, water consumption by the public, industry and agriculture would increase by 16 by 2030. Climate change will add to the problems of water scarcity and droughts. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Cyprus Bulgaria Spain Belgium FYR, of Macedonia Italy England/Wales Malta Germany Turkey Poland France Romania Czech Republic Greece Netherlands Lithuania Estonia Hungary Switzerland Austria Denmark Luxembourg Slovenia Finland Ireland Sweden Portugal Slovakia Latvia Iceland Norway Total abstraction per year/ Long-term renewable resource Source: European Environment Agency (2009) Source: ETCLUSI (Adapted from Tallaksen, 2007) Main drought events in Europe</p> <UL><LI><a href="http://www.stallionpublishers.com/publication/1577/ibbmbyhcp/1/1/">Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.stallionpublishers.com/publication/1577/ibbmbyhcp/2/2/">Inside-Front-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.stallionpublishers.com/publication/1577/ibbmbyhcp/3/3/">Page-3</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.stallionpublishers.com/publication/1577/ibbmbyhcp/4/4/">Back-Cover</a></LI> <LI><a href="http://www.stallionpublishers.com/publications/1577/x/sitemap.xml" target="_blank">site map</a></LI> </UL>

 

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